Cryptographic Algorithms

1. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard ):

Flow of AES algorithm for 128bit cipher key
  1. Derive the set of round keys from the cipher key.
  2. Load the block data into the state array (plaintext).
  3. Add the initial round key to the starting state array.
  4. Check nine rounds of state manipulation.
  5. Derive the tenth and final round of state manipulation.
  6. Tale the final state array out as the encrypted data (ciphertext).

Data encryption standard(DES):

Flowchart-DES algorithm


Flowchart-Blow fish algorithm
  1. Since Blowfish makes use of an SP network, the first step is to initiate the substitution box (Sbox) and permutation box (Pbox). The Pbox entries are shown as the Pi in the diagram above. There are a total of 18 Pbox entries.
  2. Next, we split our 64-bit plaintext into two equal blocks, L and R.
  3. Next, we enter an encryption loop that runs 16 times. The following steps take place in each loop:
    a. We XOR L with Pi, where i depends on the loop’s current iteration.
    b. We then XOR R with F, which is a function of L that makes use of the Sbox split into 4 blocks. The overview of the F function is shown in the image below.
    c. Finally, L and R are swapped before the loop enters its next iteration.
  4. After the loop finishes, L and R are swapped once more.
  5. Next, we make use of our last two unused Pbox entries by XORing R with P17 and L with P18.
  6. Finally, we combine L and R to retrieve the ciphertext.

Twofish algorithm:

Flow chart- Twofish algoritm




student at VIT, Pune

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